Backend Web Developer Roadmap 2021

Who is a Backend Web Developer ?

backend developer roadmap: Unlike the frontend developer, who takes care of the visible part of a site or app, the backend developer is a computer scientist who instead builds everything that is not seen but serves to make that site or application work. If we were to use the metaphor, the backend developer is the technician who builds the foundation and structure of a house, while the frontend is the architect who cares about the facades and how to manage the spaces and movements within the house. Building.

In any case, the backend developer programs and writes code just like a normal computer developer, but his role is not “limited” only to sites and applications. Here on the ………… you can find amazing courses of Backend Web Developing.

Tasks that Backend developer do:

Since he works on the structure of digital systems, he is the profile that deals with the creation of even complex software and programs. This is why he has skills ranging from mathematics to the construction of databases and systems to manage the flow of information in areas that can be very different: from email marketing to cyber security through social networks to the maintenance of IT systems of third-party companies.

Programming Language to learn Backend

Programming Language to learn Backend

One of the essential skills to obtain a job interview in this sector is to demonstrate knowledge of computer programming languages, which is a bit like asking a candidate how many languages ​​besides Italian and English they can speak. To the point, that job offers are preceded by specific language. For example, a Java Backend developer is required to know the Java EE language and JavaScript in general (Node JS). Must know how to handle languages ​​in PHP or Visual Basic, Ruby, and Python. Again: C ++ backend developer indicates a position is open to those who know how to manage C ++ architectures. It is also good to keep up to date on the use of frameworks that is environments already prepared for programming, with methods such as Spring or Hibernate.

However, one of the activities that must be able to manage is that of creating and organizing digital databases conceived with systems such as Oracle or MySQL, or NoSQL, or MongoDB. This is because most companies already base their database on these models and when they hire a back-end they expect that as a professional they know how to enter and manage the related DBS.

Skills A Backend Web Developer Need in 2021

With the above-mentioned 2021 roadmap, it’s clear that backend development is a logical and technological aspect of the web app. As a result, we’ll go over the technologies and tools that are required to become a skilled backend developer.

1. Basic Internet, Operating System and Frontend Knowledge

Backend development, like frontend development, requires knowledge with the fundamentals of the internet (such as how it works, what HTTP/HTTPS is, how to work with browsers, how DNS works, and what a domain name and hosting are).

After you’ve learned the internet, you’ll need to learn about operating systems in general, including memory management, terminal usage, OS operation, process management, threads and concurrency, basic terminal commands, I/O management, and networking fundamentals.

2. Programming language

Needless to say, a backend developer must learn a programming language to improve their coding skills. While Java is the recommended language to learn in backend development, you can also go for other languages like Javascript, C#, Python, Ruby and PHP.

3. Version Control System

A version control system (VCS) is a technology that helps frontend and backend developers collaborate and manage changes over time. It also tells you what kind of changes are made and who is responsible for them. In brief, a version control system increases the project’s speed by allowing engineers to collaborate, limiting the risk of errors, and even recovering the code in the event of an accident.

For backend development, you can use the following version control systems.

4. Database

A database is a brain that helps to make a web application dynamic in the context of a web application. The database is responsible for storing data, accepting queries, obtaining information, and returning the needed result to the web app whenever you search for a product or request logins.

Backend developers either use relational or NoSQL databases. Some of them are as follows:

Relational Databases

NoSQL Databases

You’ll need to know about a handful of the databases described above, as well as some basic database principles like ORMs, ACID, the N+1 problem, Transactions, Data Normalization, and Indexes.

5. APIs

APIs (Application Programming Interfaces) are a type of intermediate that allows services to communicate with one another. APIs are used by backend developers to connect different apps or services in order to give a better user experience on the frontend. You should be aware of the following APIs:

6. Caching

Caching is a technique for storing a copy of a resource in a cache (temporary storage location) and retrieving it fast when needed. The main goal of caching is to improve data retrieval performance while reducing the need to contact the slow-to-process underlying storage layer.

Here is a list of caching techniques and tools you should be aware of.

7. Testing

The process of checking the database or server-side of a web app is known as backend testing. The goal of backend testing is to determine the database layer’s efficiency while guaranteeing that it is free of data corruption, deadlocks, and data loss. Backend developers utilize the following testing methods:

8. Code Analysis Tools

Code analysis is a technique for debugging and analyzing programs to ensure that they run smoothly. To understand more about different methods and tools for analysis, check out our previous blogs: Code Analysis Tools: Code’s Journey From Developers to Testers and Static Code Analysis Tools For Java To Provide Quality Measurements.

Some of the tools used for code analysis are:

9. Architectural Patterns

An architectural pattern is a reusable solution to repeated issues in software development. The following are a some of the most regularly used architectural patterns:

  • Monolithic
  • SOA
  • Microservices
  • CQRS
  • Event Sourcing
  • Serverless

10. Message Broker

A message broker is a part of software that allows systems, apps, and services to communicate with one another. A message broker is a module that converts the server’s formal messaging protocol into the client’s formal messaging protocol (receiver). You can learn to use one of the provided message brokers in a future project.

11. Containerization

Containerization is the packaging of software code with all required components, such as frameworks, libraries, and other dependencies, in order to create services that are isolated from one another in a container. Backend developers use containerization to make it easier to move or execute containers depending of their infrastructure or environment. Docker is one of the most commonly used containers that you should learn.

12. Design Patterns

Design Patterns are developed answers to a common set of issues that can arise during the development of a web application. It defines a common solution to such repeated problems. The following is a list of different design patterns that you should be familiar of.

  • Singleton
  • Factory
  • Observer
  • Decorator
  • Adapter
  • Template Method
  • Mediator
  • Composite
  • Facade
  • Iterator
  • Proxy

13. Authentication Method

Authentication methods are used to verify a user’s or device’s identity in order to gain access to resources, data, or applications. The authentication phase provides the security system with a user identity. Backend developers employ a variety of techniques, including:

14. WebHook

A webhook, often known as a reverse API, is a method for an app to give real-time data to other apps. Webhooks, unlike APIs, do not require a request to be sent after a response. Instead, webhooks provide data as soon as it becomes available, without the need for a request or specific callbacks. The webhook’s fundamental characteristic makes it useful for both users and providers.

15. WebSocket

The WebSocket API is a reducing technology that allows a two-way interactive communication session to be established between a user’s browser and a server. You can use this API to send messages to a server and obtain event-driven responses instead of asking the service. A WebSocket is a persistent link between a client and a server. It uses a TCP/IP socket connection to create a full-duplex, bi-directional communication channel over HTTP. Simply put, it’s a thin, lightweight layer over TCP that allows subprotocols to be used to lodge messages.

Why to choose Backend Job

This profession is always in high demand and transversal but there are also other reasons to try to become a back-end developer:


He is a high-level professional figure in great demand by companies, especially in the banking-fintech, insurance, retail, and e-commerce sectors.


It is a job that can be carried out in smart working model, remotely, and it is not uncommon to get a job for an international company also based in the United States which, however, leaves the freedom to work from wherever you want in the world (as long as they are equipped with excellent Internet connection);

Key resource. Because he knows the essential structure of computer programs and systems, a good backend developer can become indispensable and in some cases even difficult to replace in a company that appreciates his skills and competencies.

An indispensable resource for any type of company. Every company, every multinational, and even every startup needs back-end developers: learning one of the languages ​​mentioned above is an investment with a guaranteed return.

Backend Developers: Roles and Responsibilities

  • The job of the back end developer is to analyze the website’s goals and provide effective solutions.
  • Storing data and making sure it is visible to the users who have permission to see it
  • Responsible for the development of Payment processing systems, including accepting data and securely storing it.
  • Manage APIs resources that work across devices
  • He or she could be a part of the system design or data science analysis.
  • Developers are in charge of structuring the logic of the system, which works on a variety of devices.
  • To make programming easier, the back end developer must also be involved in the building of frameworks and architecture.
  • Back-end web developers should be able to write algorithms and address system issues.

How you can become Backend Web Developer

How you can become Backend Web Developer

If you have studied Computer subjects in your degree program then this is best for you:

 …………………… often look for young graduates in all Engineering, Mathematics, Physics and Statistics courses: these degree programs provide the foundation to quickly enter the world of programming.

Those who want to pursue this career can also learn to program self-taught: to date, there are numerous online courses such as this one on Udemy……………….

Earning of a Backend Web Developer

Due to their more specific tasks and skills, a backend developer is among the highest-paid figures in the hi-tech and IT sector. The average salary, for figures with at least a few years of experience, can be around 34 thousand Euros gross per year. But if you are a junior, in any case, the basic salary is that provided for either by the national metalworking collective agreement or for the Tertiary and Commerce sector with net salaries of around 1300 Euros per month. Companies like Google, Amazon, and Facebook also offer very high salaries: but the competition to grab a job is very high.

Points to remember

To make a good impression and get an interview as a backend developer, you need to show what you are capable of. In this specific case, knowing how to solve problems and identify bugs or system errors within databases. Logical reasoning and knowledge of programming languages ​​and environments are, as in any job related to computer development, indispensable.

Training for a Backend Web Developer

To enter the world of IT development, skills and knowledge are required which can be obtained first of all with a degree in the IT area. A three-year course is a must; a specialization allows you to focus your learning path on more limited elements, gradually enhancing the practical application of knowledge.

A good opportunity will certainly be the moment of university internship, useful to bring aspiring backend developers to the world that awaits them once they have completed their studies.

But good preparation is not based on a limited period: once the academic path is finished, continuous training will be required, connected to the need to stay up to date on news and developments that the IT world is experiencing. This area, in particular, is in fact among the most dynamic; therefore it is necessary to remain trained and ready to welcome new languages ​​and mechanisms. The greater this commitment, the easier it will be to adapt and be in line with the market.

One method to make this advice concrete can be to use online courses: platforms such as …………… or ………………..are excellent starting points. They can then be associated with practical exercises that can vary in difficulty based on the path you are facing. For example, offers opportunities to take inspiration from others’ projects and practice.

Also in this vein, it can be interesting to take part in open-source projects, such as FOSS on Github. They will be perfect training gyms to grow and confront you with interesting and stimulating initiatives.

Frequently Asked Question About Backend Developer

What are the soft skills needed to be successful as a back end developer?

Ans: Back end developers must be well-organized and thorough in their work. They should be innovative, problem-solvers, and able to stay calm and focused under pressure. Excellent communication skills, both verbal and written, are also required.

Which computer languages and tools are most helpful as a back end developer?

Ans: PHP, Ruby, Python, and Java are examples of server-side languages that back end developers should be familiar with. It is necessary to have a working knowledge of database tools such as MySQL, Oracle, and SQL Server. A back end developer’s experience with Linux is a major benefit. A working knowledge of PHP frameworks like Zend and Symfony, as well as version control software like SVN and Git, is also beneficial.

What is the difference between a front end developer, a back end developer and a full stack developer?

Ans: The appearance of a web application is most important to front end developers. The graphic and creative components of web design appeal to front end engineers. The reasoning behind the website is created by back end developers. Programming and working with data are two things that back end developers appreciate. “Jacks of all trades” are full stack developers. Developers that work on both the front end and back end of a web application are known as full stack developers.

How can I advance my career as a back end developer?

Ans: It’s important to stay current with new and developing technology in web application development if you want to succeed as a back end developer. Back end developers should learn at least one programming language and expand their understanding of front end development. It’s also essential to develop your communication and leadership abilities.

What is the job outlook for back end developers?

Ans: In the future years, the demand for back end developers will continue to rise. Back end developers will be in great demand to develop and manage web applications as more companies conduct business online.

Can Back End Developer work from home?

Ans: Depending on their current job assignments and company policy, back end developers may be able to work from home on occasionally.


  • Back end development refers to server-side development
  • Back-end developer skills include Database and cache, Development Languages, Server, API (REST, SOAP), and Server.
  • Backend web developers should be able to understand the goals and provide effective solutions.
  • A front-end developer should know HTML, CSS and JavaScript, while a back-end web developer should know the database, server, API, etc.
  • While Front-end development cannot be done on its own, Backend web development can be.

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